UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION GUIDELINES

Welcome to the 

Law Offices 
of 
Edward J. Chandler, P.A.

708 East Atlantic Boulevard    Telephone:  (954) 788-1355
Pompano Beach, Fl 33060    Facsimile:  (954) 788-1357
Call Today! 24/7 “FROM ARREST TO TRIAL “
UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION GUIDELINES MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER ONE – Authority and General Application Principles . .. . . . . . . 1

Part A-Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1
Part B-General Application Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

CHAPTER TWO – Offense Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Part A-Offenses Against the Person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       45
1. Homicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      . . 45
2. Assault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . . 48
3. Criminal Sexual Abuse and Offenses Related to
Registration as a Sex Offender . . . . . . . .                                                   54
4. Kidnapping, Abduction, or Unlawful Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . 67
5. Air Piracy and Offenses Against Mass Transportation Systems . . . . .  . . 70
6. Threatening or Harassing Communications,
Hoaxes, Stalking, and Domestic Violence . .                                              . 72
Part B-Basic Economic Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
1. Theft, Embezzlement, Receipt of Stolen Property, Property Destruction, and
Offenses Involving Fraud or Deceit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2. Burglary and Trespass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 104
3. Robbery, Extortion, and Blackmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
4. Commercial Bribery and Kickbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5. Counterfeiting and Infringement of Copyright or Trademark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6. Motor Vehicle Identification Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Part C-Offenses Involving Public Officials and Violations
of Federal Election Campaign Laws . .                                                                 124
Part D-Offenses Involving Drugs And Narco-Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
1. Unlawful Manufacturing, Importing, Exporting, Trafficking, or Possession;
Continuing Criminal Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
2. Unlawful Possession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 181
3. Regulatory Violations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 183
Part E-Offenses Involving Criminal Enterprises and Racketeering . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
1. Racketeering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 185
2. Extortionate Extension of Credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
3. Gambling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 189
4. Trafficking in Contraband Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco . . . . . . . . . .  . . 190
5. Labor Racketeering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Part F-[Deleted] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 195
Part G-Offenses Involving Commercial Sex Acts, Sexual Exploitation of Minors,
and Obscenity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
1. Promoting A Commercial Sex Act or Prohibited Sexual Conduct . . . . . . . . . 196
2. Sexual Exploitation of a Minor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 203
3. Obscenity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Part H-Offenses Involving Individual Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
1. Civil Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
2. Political Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 219
3. Privacy and Eavesdropping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 220
4. Peonage, Involuntary Servitude, and Slave Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Part J-Offenses Involving the Administration of Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Part K-Offenses Involving Public Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  234
1. Explosives and Arson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  234
2. Firearms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  241
3. Mailing Injurious Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Part L-Offenses Involving Immigration, Naturalization, and Passports . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
1. Immigration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  255
2. Naturalization and Passports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 261
Part M-Offenses Involving National Defense and Weapons of Mass Destruction . . . . . 266
1. Treason . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
2. Sabotage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
3. Espionage and Related Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  267
4. Evasion of Military Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  272
5. Prohibited Financial Transactions and Exports, and Providing Material Support
to Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
6. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons and Materials, and Other Weapons
of Mass Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 276
Part N-Offenses Involving Food, Drugs, Agricultural Products, and Odometer Laws . 280
1. Tampering with Consumer Products . . . . . . .  . . . . . .. . . . . . 280
2. Food, Drugs, and Agricultural Products . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
3. Odometer Laws and Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Part O-[Not Used]
Part P-Offenses Involving Prisons and Correctional Facilities .. . 284
Part Q-Offenses Involving the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
1. Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
2. Conservation and Wildlife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 295
Part R-Antitrust Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Part S-Money Laundering and Monetary Transaction Reporting .. . . 302
Part T-Offenses Involving Taxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 308
1. Income Taxes, Employment Taxes, Estate Taxes, Gift Taxes,
and Excise Taxes (Other Than Alcohol, Tobacco, and Customs Taxes) .  308
2. Alcohol and Tobacco Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 317
3. Customs Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  318
4. Tax Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  320
Part U-[Not Used]
Part V-[Not Used]
Part W-[Not Used]
Part X-Other Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 321
1. Conspiracies, Attempts, Solicitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  321
2. Aiding and Abetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
3. Accessory After the Fact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  324
4. Misprision of Felony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 326
5. All Other Felony Offenses and Class A Misdemeanors . . . . . . . .  326
6. Offenses Involving Use of a Minor in a Crime of Violence . . . . . . 328
7. Offenses Involving Border Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  329
Part Y-[Not Used]Part Z-[Not Used]
CHAPTER THREE – Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Part A-Victim-Related Adjustments . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Part B-Role in the Offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Part C-Obstruction and Related Adjustments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Part D-Multiple Counts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Part E-Acceptance of Responsibility . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
CHAPTER FOUR – Criminal History and Criminal Livelihood . . . 364
Part A-Criminal History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 364
Part B-Career Offenders and Criminal Livelihood . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
CHAPTER FIVE – Determining the Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 391
Part A-Sentencing Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Part B-Probation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 394
Part C-Imprisonment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 403
Part D-Supervised Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Part E-Restitution, Fines, Assessments, Forfeitures . . . . . . . . . .. 418
Part F-Sentencing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Part G-Implementing the Total Sentence of Imprisonment . . . . . 432
Part H-Specific Offender Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  440
Part I-[Not Used]
Part J-Relief From Disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  445
Part K-Departures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  446
1. Substantial Assistance to Authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  446
2. Other Grounds for Departure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  447
3. Early Disposition Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
CHAPTER SIX – Sentencing Procedures, Plea
Agreements, and Crime Victims’ Rights . .                           . . 465
Part A-Sentencing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 465
Part B-Plea Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
CHAPTER SEVEN – Violations of Probation and Supervised Release . . . 474
Part A-Introduction to Chapter Seven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  474
1. Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
2. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
3. Resolution of Major Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  475
4. The Basic Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
5. A Concluding Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 477
Part B-Probation and Supervised Release Violations . . . . . . . . 479
CHAPTER EIGHT – Sentencing of Organizations . . . . . . . . . . 487
Part A-General Application Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 488
Part B-Remedying Harm from Criminal Conduct, and Effective Compliance
and Ethics Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
1. Remedying Harm from Criminal Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 492
2. Effective Compliance and Ethics Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Part C-Fines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  501
1. Determining the Fine – Criminal Purpose Organizations . . . .. 501
2. Determining the Fine – Other Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
3. Implementing the Sentence of a Fine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  517
4. Departures from the Guideline Fine Range . . . . . . . . . . . . .520
Part D-Organizational Probation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .. 524
Part E-Special Assessments, Forfeitures, and Costs . . . . . .  529
Part F-Violations of Probation – Organizations . . . . . . . . . . 531
APPENDIX A – Statutory Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
APPENDIX B – Selected Sentencing Statutes . . . . . . . ..  555
INDEX TO GUIDELINES MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .662
SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUMES
APPENDIX C (Volume I) – Amendments to the Guidelines Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
(effective November 1, 1997, and earlier)
APPENDIX C (Volume II) – Amendments to the Guidelines Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
(effective November 1, 1998, through November 5, 2003)
SUPPLEMENT to APPENDIX C – Amendments to the Guidelines Manual . . . . . . . . . . . 1
(effective November 1, 2004, through November 1, 2007)

Welcome to the Law Offices of Edward J. Chandler, P.A.

The Law Offices of Edward J. Chandler, P.A. is a full service law firm providing aggressive representation to clients in the areas of Family law, Personal Injury, Criminal Defense, Real Estate, Foreclosure Defense, Mortgage Loan Modification, Short Sales, Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure, Commercial Litigation, Business, Unfair Competition, Fraud, Personal Injury, and Criminal Defense.

Biography of Edward J. Chandler, Esq.

Mr. Chandler is licensed to practice law in both Florida and Wisconsin, and is a member of the Supreme Court of the State of Florida, the United States District Court for the Southern District and Northern District of Florida, 4th District Court of Appeals, 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, U.S. Tax Court, and the Supreme Court of the United States.

Mr. Chandler received his undergraduate degree from the University of Miami and his law degree from St. Thomas University School of Law, where he was a marshall in the Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity.

Mr. Chandler lives in South Florida.   His practice has expanded to include such areas as criminal law, Federal Criminal Defense, personal injury, family law, business law, commercial litigation and real estate.

Federal Criminal Defense
Business Law
Family Law
Constitutional Law
Criminal Matters
Commercial Litigation
Debt Negotiation
Family Law
Personal Injury
Real Estate
Technology Law
Wills, Trusts, Estates
Criminal Representation
Foreclosure Defense
Mortgage Loan Modification
Business & Civil Litigation.

If for some reason we cannot assist you in any legal matter, we will refer you to a trusted colleague who may be able to help you.

The history of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines

Federal sentencing guidelines were established by Congress in 1987 to create uniform sentences for similar crimes across the country.  Unlike mandatory minimum sentencing laws which can eliminate judicial discretion, the guidelines require a sentencing judge to consider various facts about the specific crime and defendant to justify a sentence within the guidelines.  Judicial consideration of these facts lead to a “guideline range,” for example: 18 to 24 months.  Mandatory minimums are “one-size-fits-all,” but the guidelines allow for upward or downward departures in unusual cases.Unfortunately, mandatory sentencing laws supersede or “trump” the sentencing guidelines, so judges first must determine if a defendant has been convicted of a crime which triggers a mandatory minimum penalty.  If so, the mandatory minimum sentence must be imposed regardless of the sentencing guidelines recommendation. Current federal sentencing guideline tables can be found at the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s website.

There are only two ways to avoid a mandatory minimum sentence.  First, a defendant can provide “substantial assistance” to the government by turning in other defendants.  Second, a defendant in a drug case only can qualify as a “safety valve” defendant.  Congress created the “safety valve” in 1994 to address excessive sentences for nonviolent drug offenders.  Congress created the “safety valve” in 1994 to address excessive sentences for nonviolent drug offenders.  It is very difficult to qualify as a “safety valve” defendant, and thousands of nonviolent drug defendants are still sent to prison for decades under mandatory minimum sentencing laws.  But a low-level, nonviolent offender who qualifies for the “safety valve” can be sentenced at the judge’s discretion under the sentencing guidelines instead of mandatory minimum laws.  You qualify for a “safety valve” only if your “criminal history category” is a Category I under the sentencing guidelines, you did not threaten violence or possess a gun, your offense did not result in death or serious bodily injury; you were not a leader in the offense; and you agree to provide the prosecutor with all the information and evidence you have concerning the offense and related offenses.

The Federal Sentencing Guidelines were created by the United States Sentencing Commission in the 1990’s.   They purported to be a statistical compilation of sentences imposed in the federal courts throughout the nation for a given crime and where given sentencing factors were present.  The purpose was to establish a degree of uniformity in sentences throughout the nation.

The Sentencing Guidelines were binding on the federal judges until 2006 when the United States Supreme Court declared that the guidelines were unconstitutional.  The Supreme Court declared  that the guidelines were advisory and not mandatory on the judges.

How calculate a federal sentence:
 
You must determine the offense conduct:
Chapter two of the guidelines sets forth the “base offense level” for the crime with which you are convicted.

You must determine the Offense related adjustments
In Chapter Three you will see a number of offense-related adjustments.

“Acceptance of responsibility”   §3E1.1. Acceptance of Responsibility  provides a reduction of two or three points (depending on your base offense level)

You must determine the Criminal history category
They will assess one to three criminal history point (which is different than a guideline point) for each prior conviction depending upon the length of the conviction.  You then consult the criminal history table.   It provides as follows:

Catetory      Points

I                 (0 or 1)
II                (2 or 3)
III               (4, 5, 6)
IV              (7, 8, 9)
V               (10, 11, 12)
VI              (13 or more)
You must determine number of months and dusted offense level from The sentencing table range;
On Page 392 the  “adusted offense level” is found by adding or substracting the offense-related adjustments to the base offense level. Then determine the criminal history category.  Using the table you will then be able to determine your sentencing guideline range.                                           KNOW YOUR RIGHTS!


         My goal is to represent my clients as I would want to be represented, always putting their interests first, diligently working to fully understand and serve the clients’ needs. In short, to do whatever it takes for the successful resolution of the
clients’ causes.

         If you are being investigated or charged with a Federal or State criminal offense, you need to seek the advice of Edward J. Chandler, Esq., an experienced Florida Federal and State criminal defense attorney since 1991! Right now, you may be filled with fear, confusion, embarrassment, and anger. You probably have a thousand questions and want to know your rights and how to proceed. With your future as stake, you need to think smart and speak with an experienced Florida criminal defense lawyer as soon as possible.

Since a criminal conviction may affect your future, your reputation and your chances of getting a job, it is critical that you seek out an experienced Florida criminal defense attorney such as Edward J, Chandler, as soon as you are being investigated or charged with a Federal or State criminal offense. The right Florida criminal defense lawyer can evaluate your case, determine legal strategies, and defend you in court, increasing your likelihood of staying out of jail and protecting your future.

Given the complexity of criminal defense in Florida, it is important that you choose a Florida criminal defense lawyer that knows the Federal and State systems, and who combines experience with a track record, and who has a thorough understanding and familiarity with the law, the prosecutors and the local courts. If you have been accused of a crime, your time to get the right experienced Federal or State criminal defense attorney is limited. Regardless of whether you are innocent or guilty, you deserve aggressive, experienced legal representation.

Violating the laws in Florida can result in harsh punishments, such as incarceration and fines. However, being charged with a Federal or State criminal offense does not have to devastate your entire life.  Edward J. Chandler, Esq, is here to ensure that you get your life back, your peace of mind and your freedom. “I employ an aggressive defense, often convincing the prosecution to reduce the charges against you or, in some cases, dismissing them. My sole priority is to achieve a resolution that you can live with.”

Attorney Edward J. Chandler has successfully represented numerous clients charged with criminal offenses throughout the State of Florida.  Edward J. Chandler  prides himself on aggressive representation with a personal touch. Armed with Federal and State legal knowledge and experience, he can build a winning defense. Edward J. Chandler, Esq. is accustomed to taking on the criminal justice system and achieving the best results for his clients. In addition to personally handling your case from investigation, arrest, bond hearing, arraignment, discovery and through jury trial, Edward J. Chandler, Esq. will be available to you during every step of the criminal procedure. Edward J. Chandler guarantees that you and your case will receive his undivided attention.

When your future is on the line…Call the Law Offices of Edward J. Chandler, P.A.  at (954) 788-1355  24/7 immediately! Your phone consultation is free and completely confidential.

Professional Organizations:

   * Florida Bar since 1991
* Broward County Bar Association
* Association of Trial Lawyers of America -ATLA
* Federal Bar
* Federal Court -Southern and Middle Districts of Florida
* Supreme Court of United States
* 4th District Court of  Appeals
* 11th Circuit Court of Appeals
* United States Tax Court

Advertisements

Leave a comment

Filed under Attorney, Broward County, Criminal defense, Florida law, Law, Lawyer, Uncategorized

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s